Of the sixty-five pipes that have been recovered at San Lazaro, fifty-eight show signs of having been smoked. Many still have burned tobacco in their bowls. Three are made of compressed volcanic ash, one is catlinite, one is sandstone, and the remaining sixty are made of fired clay. Twenty-three of the pipes are decorated in some manner. Nicotiana (tobacco) seeds were found in flotation samples taken from Room 2 in Building 1. The pipe in the top left of this photo is 2.5 inches long.
When we found this deeply incised pottery pipe, which is 2.5 inches long, it was lying beside a hearth on the floor of a room in Building 1. Because it was encrusted with a heavy calcium deposit that largely obliterated its design, we soaked it in a mild solution of muriatic acid. When the liquid stopped fizzing, the pipe appeared as new.
Bullets and Stuff
Thirty-five bullets, ranging in size from about 25 caliber to larger than 50 caliber; make up about 15 percent of the lead pieces we have recovered. Most of the bullets are unfired, but some show impact damage.
Kiva B Gaming Pieces
The purpose of the “human” effigies pictured here has long been a point of conjecture; everyone seems to have a different idea about their use. An acquaintance at Taos Pueblo, who always spoke with his mouth almost closed, informed me that they were only whimsical toys made for children, as he laughed at me for asking the question. He laughed so loudly that I could see he had no teeth in the front of his mouth, which struck me as being funny, so we each had a hearty laugh at the expense of the other. These objects were made by abrading pottery fragments into the desired shapes. After studying quite a few pieces, we concluded that the paint design made a difference in determining which sherd was selected. Many of the figures look as if they are wearing wrap-around shawls or loincloths. . Similar figures, such as the one in the bottom left corner of the photo, are made of sandstone.
More pieces of the medicine bundle are included in this photo. The top two bones are left and right ulnae (wings) of a large bird that have not been altered by man. The second two bones are 7-inch-Iong flutes with elongated sounding holes that also were made from the left and right ulnae of a large bird. Both instruments still contain pine pitch in their sounding holes, which produce music when air is blown across them. The third layer contains twelve quartz crystals (silicon dioxide), three rounded chalcedony medicine stones, a round iron concretion, a 5/8-inch bone tube made from the radius of a large bird, and a bone splinter awl. The bottom two rows contain two mother-of-pearl earrings 2.25 inches long, a mother-of-pearl pendant, two quartz, crystals, two blue fluorite crystals (calcium fluoride), pieces of rubbed azurite (hydrated copper carbonate) and limonite (hydrated iron oxide), a mother-of-pearl fragment two pieces of selenite (gypsum), a small red rectangular piece of orthoclase (potassium aluminum silicate), three small pieces of amazonite (microcline feldspar}, a small turquoise bead, three incisors of a vegetarian animal (probably a goat or sheep), and a small white triangular projectile point made from a fine-grained quartz. The object at the far right is a 2.625 inch iron awl, which indicates the date of the medicine kit is between 1541 and 1680.